GRK 2160 Dropit: Upscaling of coupled free-flow and porous-media-flow processes

Department of Hydromechanics and Modelling of Hydrosystems

Research projekt within the International Research Training Group DROPIT (GRK 2160) funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) from 1st October 2016 until 30th September 2025


In many fields of industrial application coupled systems of a porous medium and an adjacent free-flow region are modelled. In some of these appliations, the development of droplets at the interface between the two different flow compartments plays a crucial role and should be taken into account in the model.

Different approaches to model the processes at the interface are examined within this project.The aim is to develop a detailed description of droplet formation and movement. First, the transition zone between free flow and porous medium is examined in detail using a coupled model that accounts for in-depth micro-scale processes on the interface between the two flow regimes. In a second step, an upscaling process is determined to transfer the governing pore-scale effects to an averaged macro-scale flow model in order to make real world applications on large scales technically feasible.

The project is part of the international research training group "Droplet Interaction Technologies" (DropIT). Research is done in cooperation with scientists at the University of Bergamo (Italy). The IRTG DropIT conducts research in the areas of drop-gas-interaction, drop-wall-interaction and drop-liquid-interaction, aiming at improving e.g. industrial processes with the gained knowledge.

Project leader

Jun.-Prof. Dr. Carina Bringedal
Prof. Dr.-Ing Rainer Helmig
Prof. Dr.-Ing Maurizio Santini (University of Bergamo)

Research assistants


Cooperation partners

University of Bergamo


01/2016 - 09/2025

Further information



Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)


  1. (Journal-) Articles

    1. Ackermann, S., Fest-Santini, S., Veyskarami, M., Helmig, R., & Santini, M. (2023). Experimental validation of a coupling concept for drop formation and growth onto porous materials by high-resolution X-ray imaging technique. International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 160.
    2. Veyskarami, M., Michalkowski, C., Bringedal, C., & Helmig, R. (2023). Droplet Formation, Growth and Detachment at the Interface of a Coupled Free-FLow--Porous Medium System: A New Model Development and Comparison. Transport in Porous Media, 1--31.
    3. Michalkowski, C., Veyskarami, M., Bringedal, C., Helmig, R., & Schleper, V. (2022). Two-phase Flow Dynamics at the Interface Between GDL and Gas Distributor Channel Using a Pore-Network Model. Transport in Porous Media, 144(2), Article 2.
    4. Ackermann, S., Bringedal, C., & Helmig, R. (2021). Multi-scale three-domain approach for coupling free flow and flow in porous media including droplet-related interface processes. Journal of Computational Physics, 429, 109993.


This image shows Rainer Helmig

Rainer Helmig

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr.-Ing. h.c.


This image shows Sina Ackermann

Sina Ackermann


Academic Staff

This image shows Maziar Veyskarami

Maziar Veyskarami


Academic Staff

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